Nov 3, 2022
Dr. Vamsi Velcheti and Dr. Benjamin Neel, of the NYU Langone Perlmutter Cancer Center, and Dr. John Heymach, of MD Anderson Cancer Center, discuss new therapeutic approaches for KRAS-mutant lung cancers and therapy options for RAS-altered tumors.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Hello, I'm Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti, your guest host for the ASCO Daily News podcast today. I'm the medical director of the Thoracic Oncology Program at Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health.
I'm delighted to welcome two internationally renowned physician-scientists, Dr. John Heymach, the chair of Thoracic-Head & Neck Medical Oncology at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, and my colleague, Dr. Benjamin Neel, the director of the Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health, and professor of Medicine at NYU Grossman School of Medicine.
So, we'll be discussing new therapeutic approaches today for KRAS-mutant lung cancers, and we will talk about emerging new targeted therapy options for RAS-altered tumors.
Our full disclosures are available in the show notes, and the disclosures of all the guests of the podcast can be found on our transcript at: asco.org/podcast.
Dr. Heymach and Dr. Neel, it's such a great pleasure to have you here for the podcast today.
Dr. John Heymach: My pleasure to be here.
Dr. Benjamin Neel: Same here.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Dr. Neel, let's start off with you. As you know, RAS oncogenes were first discovered nearly four decades ago. Why is RAS such a challenging therapeutic target? Why has it taken so long to develop therapeutic options for these patients?
Dr. Benjamin Neel: Well, I think a good analogy is the difference between kinase inhibitors and RAS inhibitors. So, kinase inhibitors basically took advantage of an ATP-binding pocket that's present in all kinases, but is different from kinase to kinase, and can be accessed by small molecule inhibitors. So, the standard approach that one would've thought of taking, would be to go after the GTP-binding pocket. The only problem is that the affinity for binding GTP by KRAS is three to four orders of magnitude higher. So, actually getting inhibitors that are GTP-binding inhibitors is pretty much very difficult.
And then, until recently, it was felt that RAS was a very flat molecule and there weren't any surfaces that you could stick a small molecule inhibitor in. So, from a variety of biochemical and medicinal-pharmacological reasons, RAS was thought to be impervious to small molecule development. But as is often the case, a singular and seminal insight from a scientist, Kevan Shokat, really broke the field open, and now there's a whole host of new approaches to trying to drug RAS.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: So, Dr. Neel, can you describe those recent advances in drug design that have enabled these novel new treatments for KRAS-targeted therapies?
Dr. Benjamin Neel: So, it starts actually with the recognition that for many years, people were going after the wrong RAS. And by the wrong RAS, the overwhelming majority of the earlier studies on the structure, and for that matter, the function of RAS centered on HRAS or Harvey RAS. We just mutated in some cancers, most prominently, bladder cancer, and head & neck cancer, but not on KRAS, which is the really major player in terms of oncogenes in human cancer. So, first of all, we were studying the wrong RAS.
The second thing is that we were sort of thinking that all RAS mutants were the same. And even from the earliest days, back in the late eighties, it was pretty clear that there were different biochemical properties in all different RAS mutants. But this sort of got lost in the cause and in the intervening time, and as a result, people thought all RASes were the same and they were just studying mainly G12V and G12D, which are more difficult to drug.
And then, the third and most fundamental insight was the idea of trying to take advantage of a particular mutation in KRAS, which is present in a large fraction of lung cancer patients, which is, KRAS G12C. So, that's a mutation of glycine 12 to cysteine and Kevan’s really seminal study was to use a library of covalently adducting drugs, and try to find ways to tether a small molecule in close enough so that it could hit the cysteine. And what was really surprising was when they actually found the earliest hits with this strategy, which was actually based on some early work by Jim Wells at Sunesis in the early part of this century, they found that it was actually occupying the G12C state or the inactive state of RAS. And this actually hearkens back to what I said earlier about all RASes being the same. And in fact, what's been recently re-appreciated is that some RAS mutants, most notably, G12C, although they're impervious to the gap which converts the active form into the inactive form, they still have a certain amount of intrinsic ability to convert from the inactive form.
And so, they always cycle into the inactive form at some slow rate, and that allows them to be accessed by these small molecules in the so-called Switch-II Pocket, and that enables them to position a warhead close enough to the cysteine residue to make a covalent adduct and inactivate the protein irreversibly. Scientists at a large number of pharmaceutical companies and also academic labs began to understand how to access various other pockets in RAS, and also even new strategies, taking advantage of presenting molecules to RAS on a chaperone protein. So, there's now a whole host of strategies; you have a sort of an embarrassment of riches from an impoverished environment that we started with prior to 2012.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Thank you, Dr. Neel.
So, Dr. Heymach, lung cancer has been a poster child for personalized therapy, and we've had like a lot of FDA-approved agents for several molecularly-defined subsets of lung cancer. How clinically impactful is a recent approval of Sotoracib for patients with metastatic lung cancer?
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah. Well, I don't think it's an exaggeration to say this is the biggest advance for targeted therapies for lung cancer since the initial discovery of EGFR inhibitors. And let me talk about that in a little more detail. You know, the way that lung cancer therapy, like a lot of other cancer therapies, has advanced is by targeting specific driver oncogenes. And as Dr. Neel mentioned before, tyrosine kinases are a large percentage of those oncogenes and we've gotten very good at targeting tyrosine kinases developing inhibitors. They all sort of fit into the same ATP pocket, or at least the vast majority of them now. There are some variations on that idea now like allosteric inhibitors.
And so, the field has just got better and better. And so, for lung cancer, the field evolved from EGFR to ALK, to ROS1 RET fusions, MEK, and so forth. What they all have in common is, they're all tyrosine kinases. But the biggest oncogene, and it's about twice as big as EGFR mutation, are KRAS mutations. And as you mentioned, this isn't a tyrosine kinase. We never had an inhibitor. And the first one to show that it's targetable, to have the first drug that does this, is really such an important breakthrough. Because once the big breakthrough and the concept is there, the pharmaceutical companies in the field can be really good at improving and modulating that. And that's exactly what we see. So, from that original insight that led to the design of the first G12C inhibitors, now there's dozens, literally dozens of G12C inhibitors and all these other inhibitors based on similar concepts. So, the first one now to go into the clinic and be FDA-approved is Sotoracib.
So, this again, as you've heard, is inhibitor G12C, and it's what we call an irreversible inhibitor. So, it fits into this pocket, and it covalently links with G12C. So, when it's linked, it's linked, it's not coming off. Now, the study that led to its FDA approval was called the CodeBreak 100 study. And this was led in part, by my colleague Ferdinandos Skoulidis, and was published in The New England Journal in the past year. And, you know, there they studied 126 patients, and I'll keep just a brief summary, these were all refractory lung cancer patients. They either had first-line therapy, most had both chemo and immunotherapy. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. And for the study, the objective response rate was 37%, the progression-free survival was 6.8 months, the overall survival was 12.5 months.
Now you might say, well, 37%, that's not as good as an EGFR inhibitor or the others. Well, this is a much harder thing to inhibit. And you have to remember in this setting, the standard of care was docetaxel chemotherapy. And docetaxel usually has a response rate of about 10 to 13%, progression-free survival of about 3 months. So, to more than double that with a targeted drug and have a longer PFS really is a major advance. But it's clear, we've got to improve on this and I think combinations are going to be incredibly important now. There's a huge number of combination regimens now in testing.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Thank you, Dr. Heymach.
So, Dr. Neel, just following up on that, unlike other targeted therapies in lung cancer, like EGFR, ALK, ROS, and RET, the G12C inhibitors appear to have somewhat modest, I mean, though, certainly better than docetaxel that Dr. Heymach was just talking about; why is it so hard to have more effective inhibitor of KRAS here? Is it due to the complex nature of RAS-mutant tumors? Or is it our approach for targeting RAS? Is it a drug-related problem, or is it the disease?
Dr. Benjamin Neel: Well, the short answer is I think that's a theoretical discussion at this point and there isn't really good data to tell you, but I suspect it's a combination of those things. We'll see with the new RAS(ON) inhibitors, which seem to have deeper responses, even in animal models, if those actually work better in the clinic, then we'll know at least part of it was that we weren't hitting RAS hard enough, at least with the single agents. But I also think that it's highly likely that since KRAS-mutant tumors are enriched in smokers, and smokers have lots of mutations, that they are much more complex tumours, and therefore there's many more ways for them to escape.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Dr. Heymach, you want to weigh in on that?
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah, I think that's right. I guess a couple of different ways to view it is the problem that the current inhibitors are not inhibiting the target well enough, you know, in which case we say we get better and better inhibitors will inhibit it more effectively, or maybe we're inhibiting it, but we're not shutting down all the downstream pathways or the feedback pathways that get turned on in response, in which case the path forward is going to be better combinations. Right now, I think the jury is still out, but I think the data supports that we can do better with better inhibitors, there's room to grow. But it is also going to be really important hitting these compensatory pathways that get turned on. I think it's going to be both, and it seems like KRAS may turn on more compensatory pathways earlier than things like EGFR or ALK2, you know, and I think it's going to be a great scientific question to figure out why that is.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Right. And just following up on that, Dr. Heymach, so, what do we know so far about primary and acquired resistance to KRAS G12C inhibitors?
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah. Well, it's a great question, and we're still very early in understanding this. And here, if we decide to call it primary resistance - meaning you never respond in the first place, and acquired - meaning you respond and then become resistant, we're not sure why some tumors do respond and don't respond initially. Now, it's been known for a long time, tumors differ in what we call their KRAS-dependence. And in cell lines and in mouse models, when you study this in the lab, there are some models where if you block KRAS, those cells will die immediately. They are fully dependent. And there's other ones that become sort of independent and they don't really seem to care if you turn down KRAS, they've sort of moved on to other things they're dependent on. One way this can happen is with undergoing EMT where the cell sort of changes its dependencies. And EMT is probably a reason some of these tumors are resistant, to start with. It may also matter what else is mutated along with KRAS, what we call the co-mutations, the additional mutations that occur along with it. For example, it seems like if this gene KEAP1 is mutated, tumors don't respond as well, to begin with.
Now, acquired resistance is something we are gaining some experience with. I can say in the beginning, we all knew there'd be resistance, we were all waiting to see it, and what we were really hoping for was the case like with first-generation inhibitors with EGFR, where there was one dominant mechanism. In the first-generation EGFR, we had one mutation; T790M, that was more than half the resistance. And then we could develop drugs for that. But unfortunately, that's not the case. It looks like the resistance mechanisms are very diverse, and lots of different pathways can get turned on. So, for acquired resistance, you can have additional KRAS mutations, like you can have a KRAS G12D or V, or some other allele, or G13, I didn't even realize were commonly mutated, like H95 or Y96 can get mutated as well. So, we might be able to inhibit with better inhibitors. But the more pressing problem is what we call bypass; when these other pathways get turned on. And for bypass, we know that the tumor can turn on MET with MET amplification, NRAS, BRAF, MAP kinase, and we just see a wide variety. So, it's clear to us there isn't going to be a single easy to target solution like there was for EGFR. This is going to be a long-term problem, and we're going to have to work on a lot of different solutions and get smarter about what we're doing.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Yeah. Thank you very much, Dr. Heymach.
And Dr. Neel, just following up on that, so, what do you think our strategies should be or should look like while targeting KRAS-mutant tumors? Like, do we focus on better ways to inhibit RAS, or do we focus on personalized combination approaches based on various alterations or other biomarkers?
Dr. Benjamin Neel: Yeah. Well, I'd like to step back a second and be provocative, and say that we've been doing targeted therapies, so to speak, for a long time, and it's absolutely clear that targeted therapies never cure. And so, I think we should ask the bigger question, "Why is it that targeted therapies never cure?" And I would start to conceive of an answer to that question by asking which therapies do cure. And the therapies that we know do cure are immune therapies, or it's therapies that generate durable immune response against the tumor. And the other therapies that we know that are therapies in some cases against some tumors, and radiation therapy in some cases against some tumors. Probably the only way that those actually converge on the first mechanism I said that cures tumors, which is generating a durable immune response.
And so, the only way, in my view, it is to durably cure an evolving disease, like a cancer, is to have an army that can fight an evolving disease. And the only army I know of is the immune system. So, I think ultimately, what we need to do is understand in detail, how all of these different mutations that lead to cancer affect immune response and create targetable lesions in the immune response, and then how the drugs we'd give affect that. So, in the big picture, the 50,000-foot picture, that what we really need to spend more attention on, is understanding how the drugs we give and the mutations that are there in the first place affect immune response against the tumor, and ultimately try to develop strategies that somehow pick up an immune response against the tumor.
Now in the short run, I think there's also lots of combination strategies that we can think of, John, you know, alluded to some of them earlier. I mean one way for the G12C inhibitors, getting better occupancy of the drug, and also blocking this so-called phenomenon of adaptive resistance, where you derepress the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, and their ligands, and therefore bypass through normal RAS or upregulate G12C into the GTP state more, that can be attacked by combining, for example, with the SHIP2 inhibitor or a SOS inhibitor. Again, the issue there will be therapeutic index. Can we achieve that with a reasonable therapeutic index?
Also in some cases, like not so much in lung cancer, but in colon cancer, it appears as if a single dominant receptor tyrosine kinase pathway, the EGF receptor pathway, is often the mechanism of adaptive resistance to RAS inhibitors, and so, combining a RAS inhibitor with an EGF receptor inhibitor is a reasonable strategy. And then of course, some of the strategies they're already getting at, what I just mentioned before, which is to try to combine RAS inhibitors with checkpoint inhibitors. I think that's an expected and understandable approach, but I think we need to get a lot more sophisticated about the tumor microenvironment, and how that's affecting the immune response. And it's not just going to be, you know, in most cases combining with a checkpoint inhibitor. I think we ought to stop using the term immunotherapy to refer to checkpoint inhibitors. Checkpoint inhibitors are one type of immunotherapy. We don't refer to antibiotics when we mean penicillin.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Dr. Heymach, as you know, like, there's a lot of discussion about the role of KRAS G12C inhibitors in the frontline setting. Do you envision these drugs are going to be positioning themselves in the frontline setting as a combination, or like as a single agent? Are there like a subset of patients perhaps where you would consider like a single agent up front?
Dr. John Heymach: So, I think there's no question G12C inhibitors are moving to the first-line question. And the question is just how you get there. Now, the simplest and most straightforward approach is to say, “Well, we'll take our standard and one standard might be immunotherapy alone, a PD-1 inhibitor alone, or chemo with the PD-1 inhibitor, and just take the G12C inhibitor and put it right on top.” And that's a classic strategy that's followed. That may not be that simple. It's not obvious that these drugs will always work well together or will be tolerated together. So, I think that's still being worked out. Now, an alternative strategy is you could say, “Well, let's get a foot in a door in the first-line setting by finding where chemotherapy and immunotherapy don't work well, and pick that little subgroup.”
There are some studies there using STK11-mutant tumors, and they don't respond well to immunotherapy and chemotherapy and say, “Well, let's pick that first.” And that's another strategy, but that's not to get it for everybody in the first-line setting. That's just to pick a little subgroup. Or we may develop KRAS G12C inhibitor combinations by themselves that are so effective they can beat the standard.
So, what I think is going to happen is a couple things; I think they'll first be some little niches where it gets in there first. I think eventually, we'll figure out how to combine them with chemotherapy and immunotherapy so it goes on top. And then I think over time, we'll eventually develop just more effective, targeted combos where we can phase out the chemo, where the chemo goes to the back of the line, and this goes to the front of the line.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: And Dr. Heymach, any thoughts on the perioperative setting and the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, do you think there's any role for these inhibitors in the future?
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah, this is a really exciting space right now. And so that makes this a really challenging question because of how quickly things are moving. I'll just briefly recap for everybody. Until recently, adjuvant therapy was just chemotherapy after you resected a lung cancer. That was it. And it provided about a 5% benefit in terms of five-year disease-free survival. Well, then we had adjuvant immunotherapy, like atezolizumab, approved, then we had neoadjuvant chemo plus immunotherapy approved; that's a CheckMate 816. And just recently, the AEGEAN study, which I'm involved with, was announced to be a positive study. That's neoadjuvant plus adjuvant chemo plus immunotherapy. So now, if you say, well, how are you going to bring a G12C inhibitor in there? Well, you can envision a few different ways; if you can combine with chemo and immunotherapy, you could bring it up front and bring it afterwards, or you could just tack it in on the back, either with immunotherapy or by itself, if you gave neoadjuvant chemo plus immunotherapy first, what we call the CheckMate 816 regimen. So, it could fit in a variety of ways. I'll just say neoadjuvant is more appealing because you can measure the response and see how well it's working, and we in fact have a neoadjuvant study going. But the long-term benefit may really come from keeping the drug going afterwards to suppress microscopic metastatic disease. And that's what I believe is going to happen. I think you're going to need to stay on these drugs for a long while to keep that microscopic disease down.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Dr. Neel, any thoughts on novel agents in development beyond KRAS G12C inhibitors? Are there any agents or combinations that you'd be excited about?
Dr. Benjamin Neel: Well, I think that the YAP/TAZ pathway inhibitors, the TEAD inhibitors in particular, are potentially promising. I mean, it seems as if the MAP kinase pathway and the GAPT pathway act in parallel. There's been multiple phases which suggest that YAP/TAZ reactivation can be a mechanism of sort of state-switching resistance.
And so, I think those inhibitors are different than the standard PI3 kinase pathway inhibitor, PI3 kinase mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. I also think as we've alluded to a couple of times, the jury’s still out in the clinic, of course, but it'll be very exciting to see how this new set of RAS inhibitors works. The sort of Pan-RAS inhibitors, especially the ones that hit the GTP ON state. So, the G12C inhibitors and the initial preclinical G12D inhibitors that have been recorded, they all work by targeting the inactive state of RAS, the RAS-GDP state.
And so, they can only work on mutants that cycle, at least somewhat, and they also don't seem to be as potent as targeting the GTP or active state of RAS. And so, at least the Rev meds compounds, which basically use cyclophilin, they basically adapt the mechanism that cyclosporine uses to inhibit calcineurin. They basically use the same kind of a strategy and build new drugs then that bind cyclophilin and present the drug in a way that can inhibit multiple forms of RAS. So, it'll be interesting to see if they are much more efficacious in a clinic as they appear to be in the lab, whether they can be tolerated. So, I think those are things to look out for.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Dr. Heymach?
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah, I agree with that. I'm excited to see that set of compounds coming along. One of the interesting observations is that when you inhibit one KRAS allele like G12C, you get these other KRAS alleles commonly popping up. And it's a little -- I just want to pause for a second to comment on this, because this is a little different than EGFR. If you inhibit a classic mutation, you don't get multiple other separate EGFR alleles popping up. You may get a secondary mutation in cyst on the same protein, but you don't get other alleles. So, this is a little different biology, but I think the frequency that we're seeing all these other KRAS alleles pop up tells us, I think we're going to need some pan-KRAS type strategy as a partner for targeting the primary driver. So for example, a G12C inhibitor plus a pan-KRAS strategy to head off these other alleles that can be popping up.
So, I think that's going to be probably a minimum building block that you start putting other things around. And by partnering an allele-specific inhibitor where you might be able to inhibit it a little more potently and irreversibly with a pan-KRAS, you may solve some of these problems at the therapeutic window. You can imagine KRAS is so important for so many different cells in your body that if you potently inhibit all KRAS in your body, bad things are likely to happen somewhere. But if you can potently inhibit the mutant allele and then dampen the other KRAS signaling that's popping up, it's more hopeful.
Dr. Benjamin Neel: There is a mouse model study from Mariano Barbacid’s lab, which suggests that postnatal, KRAS at least, complete inhibition is doable. So, you could take out KRAS postnatally and the mice are okay. Whether that translates to human of course, is not at all clear. And you still have the other RAS alleles, the HRAS, the NRAS that you’d still have to contend with.
Dr. John Heymach: Yeah, it's an interesting lesson. We've shied away from a lot of targets we thought weren't feasible. I did a lot of my training with Judah Folkman who pioneered targeting angiogenesis. And I remember hearing this idea of blocking new blood vessels. I said, "Well, everyone is just going to have a heart attack and die." And it turns out you can do it. You have to do it carefully, and in the right way but you can separate malignant or oncogenic signaling from normal signaling in an adult, pretty reasonably in a lot of cases where you don't think you could.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: All right. So, Dr. Neel, and Dr. Heymach, any final closing comments on the field of RAS-targeted therapies, you know, what can we hope for? What can patients hope for, let's say five years from now, what are we looking at?
Dr. John Heymach: Well, I'll give my thoughts I guess first, from a clinical perspective, I think we're already seeing the outlines of an absolute explosion in targeting KRAS over the next five years. And I think there's a really good likelihood that this is going to be the major place where we see progress, at least in lung cancer, over these next five years. It's an example of a problem that just seemed insolvable for so long, and here I really want to acknowledge the sustained support for clinical research and laboratory research focused around RAS. You know, the NCI had specific RAS initiatives and we've had big team grants for KRAS, and it shows you it's worth these large-scale efforts because you never know when that breakthrough is going to happen. But sometimes it just takes, you know, opening that door a little bit and everybody can start rushing through. Well, I think for KRAS, the door has been opened and everybody is rushing through at a frantic rate right now. So, it's really exciting, and stay tuned. I think the landscape of RAS-targeting is going to look completely different five years from now.
Dr. Benjamin Neel: So, I agree that the landscape will definitely look different five years from now, because it's reflective of stuff that's been in process for the last five years. And it takes about that long to come through. I want to make two comments; one of which is to slightly disagree with my friend, John, about these big initiatives. And I would point out that this RAS breakthrough did not come from a big initiative, it came from one scientist thinking about a problem uniquely in a different way. We need a basic science breakthrough, it almost always comes from a single lab person, thinking about a problem, often in isolation, in his own group. What big initiatives can help with is engineering problems. Once you've opened the door, and you want to know what the best way is to get around the house, then maybe big initiatives help. But I do think that there's been too much focus on the big team initiative and not enough on the individual scientists who often promote the breakthrough.
And then in terms of where I see the field going, what I'd really like to see, and I think in some pharmaceutical companies and biotechs, you're seeing this now, and also in academia, but maybe not enough, is that sort of breaking down of the silos between immunotherapy and targeting therapy. Because I agree with what John said, is that targeted therapy, is just sophisticated debulking. If we want to really make progress-- and on the other hand, immunotherapy people don't seem to, you know, often recognize that these oncogenic mutations in the tumor actually affect the immune system. So, I think what we need is a unification of these two semi-disparate areas of therapeutics in a more fulsome haul and that will advance things much quicker.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: Thank you both, Dr. Neel and Dr. Heymach, for sharing all your valuable insights with us today on the ASCO Daily News podcast. We really appreciate it. Thank you so much.
Dr. John Heymach: Thanks for asking us.
Dr. Benjamin Neel: It's been great.
Dr. Vamsidhar Velcheti: And thank you all to our listeners, and thanks for joining us today. If you value our insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News podcast, please take a moment to rate, review and subscribe.
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Consulting or Advisory Role: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, Foundation Medicine, AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Novartis, Lilly, EMD Serono, GSK, Amgen
Research Funding (Inst.): Genentech, Trovagene, Eisai, OncoPlex Diagnostics, Alkermes, NantOmics, Genoptix, Altor BioScience, Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Atreca, Heat Biologics, Leap Therapeutics, RSIP Vision, GlaxoSmithKline
Dr. Benjamin Neel:
Dr. John Heymach:
Stock and Other Ownership Interests: Cardinal Spine, Bio-Tree
Consulting or Advisory Role: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Guardant Health, Hengrui Pharmaceutical, GlaxoSmithKline, EMD Serono, Takeda, Sanofi/Aventis, Genentech/Roche, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Mirati Therapeutics, Janssen Global Services, Nexus Health Systems, Pneuma Respiratory, Eli Lilly
Speakers' Bureau: IDEOlogy Health, MJH Life Sciences
Research Funding (inst.): AstraZeneca
Research funding: Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline
Patents, Royalties, Other Intellectual Property: Licensing agreement between Spectrum and MD Anderson (including myself) regarding intellectual property for treatment of EGFR and HER2 exon 20 mutations