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Jun 21, 2022

Dr. Allison Zibelli, of the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center – Jefferson Health, and Dr. Hope Rugo, of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco, discuss the practice-changing DESTINY-Breast04 trial as well as novel therapies in metastatic HR+/HER2- breast cancer from the TROPiCS-02 and MAINTAIN studies, all of which were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.



Dr. Allison Zibelli: Hello. I’m Dr. Allison Zibelli, your host for the ASCO Daily News Podcast today. I’m a vice-chair and breast medical oncologist at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Health in Philadelphia. My guest today is Dr. Hope Rugo, a professor of medicine and the director of Breast Oncology and Clinical Trials Education at the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco. We’ll be discussing key advances in breast cancer that were featured at the 2022 ASCO Annual Meeting.

Our full disclosures are available in the show notes, and disclosures of all guests on the podcasts can be found on our transcripts at

Hope, it’s great to talk to you today.

Dr. Hope Rugo: Nice to talk to you, too.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Let’s begin with perhaps the most exciting abstract at ASCO this year, which was the DESTINY-Breast04 study, that’s LBA3, a randomized phase 3 study of trastuzumab deruxtecan versus treatment of physician’s choice in patients with HER2-low, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer. What are your thoughts about this study?

Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, of course, this is a hugely practice-changing study as was noted in the second-to-last slide by the discussant [Dr.] Pat LoRusso. So, antibody-drug conjugates are really the next step in delivering chemotherapy to cancer cells. The antibody-drug conjugates allow targeted delivery of a toxin to the cancer cell. I think we didn’t understand how important this was going to be. These second, sort of, verging on third-generation antibody-drug conjugates use an antibody approach and to then have a new generation of linkers, which allow the drug to be released locally, but to then have drugs which pack a big bang for the buck.

So, the way antibody-drug conjugates are constructed, you need to have a drug that actually can’t be given as a naked drug because it’s too toxic because you’re giving just very small amounts of this drug that are delivered directly to the cancer cell. And the other really critical part of this is that the drug-to-antibody ratio of at least the successful and new antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) is quite high in the 7.5 to 8 toxins per antibody.

Now, what that’s resulted in is really interesting, is that there’s a bystander effect. So, the toxin itself can leak out of the cancer cell that it’s targeted and kill neighboring cells, but also because of the construct of these antibody-drug conjugates, what’s likely happening is even if the cancer cell’s a very low expression of the target, really low, you’re able to actually get that ADC into the cancer cell to kill the cancer cell. So that may be a big part of the so-called bystander effect.

So trastuzumab deruxtecan is biosimilar trastuzumab linked to a topoisomerase inhibitor deruxtecan, and what happened here was that of course, we saw remarkable data in HER2+ disease, unbelievable p-values in DESTINY-Breast03 compared to T-DM1, a first-generation ADC. But in DESTINY-Breast04, we targeted a population of patients largely with hormone receptor-positive disease who had a little expression of HER2, 1 plus or 2 plus by immunohistochemistry and no gene amplification. And this trial, which randomly assigned patients 2:1 and included just 58 patients with triple-negative disease. So in this trial, 480 had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, a median of 1 line of prior chemotherapy. They were only allowed up to 2. They were refractory to endocrine therapy, a median of 3 lines of endocrine therapy. In the overall patients and in the hormone receptor-positive patients, there was actually a doubling in progression-free survival (PFS). It started very early, and it continued throughout, and at every landmark analysis, T-DXd was better than the treatment of physician choice that patients were randomly assigned to.

It's also important when you’re thinking about trials like this to think about what the treatment of physician choice was, and it was all chemotherapy regimens we would use. Paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel, capecitabine, eribulin, or gemcitabine. And, so, I think that that doesn’t bring up any questions. When they looked at the hormone receptor-positive group, they saw, if anything, even a bigger benefit overall.

Now, the other endpoint of this trial was overall survival, and at this first analysis, they saw an improvement in overall survival that was quite dramatic. The absolute difference was 6.4 months, which is pretty amazing for an overall survival difference. And then they looked at this exploratory endpoint at the 58 patients who were valuable at triple-negative breast cancer, and then that group of patients, also saw an improvement in PFS of 5.6 months, an improvement in overall survival of 9.9 months, very small group, but amazing data. The forest plots are exactly what you want to see, all the dots line up to the left of 1, and overall responses improved.

One of the concerns with this drug has been toxicity. The toxicity showed no new toxicity signals, which is really important. Nausea is the biggest issue that we deal with. It’s mostly grade 1 and 2, but still something that’s important to manage. A little bit of hair loss, not much in the way of bone marrow suppression, which is interesting.

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) or pneumonitis continues to be an important issue to follow. 12% of patients had ILD of any grade. Most of it was grade 1 and 2, but 3 patients died, representing 0.8%. So, this really highlights the importance of monitoring and managing pneumonitis. Regardless of that, few patients had a reduced ejection fraction, but again, very, in general, low grade.

This is really a new standard of care, and the standing ovation was really due to the fact that all we do is dedicate ourselves to trying to help patients live longer and better with their cancers, and in this trial, we have a huge win that has no qualifications. We can help patients not only control their disease longer but live longer with T-Dxd compared to standard chemotherapy.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: So, Hope, I know as a practicing medical oncologist, I find that our metastatic triple-negative patients are often the biggest therapeutic challenges for us. Will they be doing larger studies with these patients that are HER2-low?

Dr. Hope Rugo: It’s a really good point. About 65% of patients with hormone receptor-positive disease or so-called HER2-low, centrally confirmed in the study. So, a fair number of people, about a quarter, did not have HER2-low disease when they were tested centrally. In the triple-negative population, who really are ER, PR, HER2- by standard definitions, about a third of the patients might have HER2-low disease. So, there’s a lot of interest in further exploring that and looking at the patients who have ultra-HER2-low disease, so between and 1 plus a little bit of expression. That’s been studied in the hormone receptor-positive population in DESTINY-Breast06. But there’s a lot of interesting further defining that triple-negative population, so to speak, they’re going to be triple-negative plus now and understanding what the benefit is in that population. So definitely will be looked at more now moving forward.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Thank you. So, let’s move on to Abstract 1002. And the results from the phase 1, 2 study of patritumab deruxtecan, a HER3-directed antibody-drug conjugate, and patients with HER3 expressing metastatic breast cancer. What are your thoughts about this study?

Dr. Hope Rugo: That’s a really interesting, another one of these second- to third-generation antibody-drug conjugates. It’s just the antibody, instead of being the usual, sort of, HER2 or TROP2 that we’re used to thinking about is directed to HER3, 1 of the HER family of proteins. This is interesting. There’s actually been a lot of work trying to target HER3 with naked antibodies with disappointing results, although I have to say most of the studies really didn’t push it too far. So, with this antibody drug construct, deruxtecan, which is the same as in T-DXd and another TROP2 ADC Dato-DXd is used.

So, I will say they do need to change the toxin in the next generation of ADCs. But they looked at, at first did a dose-finding study which has previously been presented, and then a dose expansion in both hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative disease and triple-negative disease. All the triple-negative patients had HER3 high disease by immunohistochemistry, and the hormone-receptor-positive patients were enrolled in 2 cohorts, HER3 high and HER3 low. And the median number of prior treatment regimens that patients had received in the hormone-receptor-positive group was 6 and 2 for the triple-negative group, but there was a huge range, up to 13 lines of treatment.

They only had 14 patients with HER2+ disease. So, it’s a little bit hard to know what to do with that patient group, but they were heavily pretreated 5.5 prior lines of therapy.

The confirmed overall response rate in the 113 patients with combined HER3 high and low was 30%, very impressive, heavily pretreated patients. For triple-negative disease all HER3 high, it was 23%. Again, very nice. And there were 14 patients with HER2+ disease that also were HER3 high. It was about 43%. So those are nice responses, but we always want to know how durable is that. The duration of response ranged from 6 to over 8 months in those 3 different groups. So, these were quite durable. It wasn’t any 2- to 3-month duration of response. So very impressive.

And then when they looked to see, did it matter whether you had HER3 expression that was high or low in the hormone-receptor positive group, they actually did see responses in the HER3-low group, some very good responses. Overall, there were less patients in that group, but it does suggest that maybe you would still see responses in the HER3-low group, very impressive.

And then 1 really interesting correlative study they did was they looked to see what happened to the HER3 expression on the tumor cell over time, and it went down. So, you treated the HER3 expression in most of the patients just dropped off completely, which is really interesting. It didn’t have any association with clinical activity, but it’s sort of an interesting correlative endpoint. This is a drug that overall was pretty well tolerated. They saw a similar toxicity to T-DXd with a lot of nauseous, a little bit of alopecia, a little bit more bone marrow suppression than we’re used to seeing with T-DXd. So, neutropenia was seen in about 10% of patients at the lower dose and about a quarter of the patients at the higher dose. Overall, pretty well tolerated.

Now, interstitial lung disease is a toxicity with this construct, and they saw ILD of 7% but most cases were grade 1 and 2. The other interesting toxicity that’s unique to this agent is thrombocytopenia. So, they saw a grade 3 or greater rate of thrombocytopenia of 27% in the lower dose group, and in the larger group that received the higher dose, 39% of grade 3 or greater thrombocytopenia, so platelets less than 100,000. Turns out that when you stop the drug, the platelets do come back, so that’s a good thing. Sometimes we saw long-term thrombocytopenia with T-DM1. They didn’t see bad toxicity like bleeding, but it is something that needs to be managed with this drug because we’re not great at managing thrombocytopenia.

In any case, it has fast-track designation for another solid tumor, not breast cancer, and we’ll have to see where this fits into our dizzying array of very effective ADCs now.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: The practicing medical oncologist is not used to testing for HER3 in our patients with breast cancer. How common is it?

Dr. Hope Rugo: HER3 expression is quite common in hormone receptor-positive disease, a little less common in triple-negative breast cancer. So, I think that we would see expression if we were going to be treating patients with this particular approach.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: All right. Let’s move on to Abstract 507, which reported long-term outcomes of adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer, specifically fracture reduction and survival results from 3,425 patients in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled ABCSG-18 trial. What are your thoughts about this study?

Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, this trial, this is an update of a study that previously has been presented and published, most recent publication was in Lancet Oncology in 2019, and these patients were randomly assigned to receive denosumab at 60 milligrams, important to note the dose, subcutaneously every 6 months versus placebo every 6 months, and they did get placebo subcutaneous injections. And this treatment continued through their endocrine therapy. They showed a dramatic reduction in fracture rate, and that has been maintained over time. We were really surprised enough to suggest that maybe Austrian people didn’t go into the sun, so they got more Vitamin D deficiency, hard to know, but the hazard ratio is 0.5. It’s unbelievable the number of fractures, 92 for denosumab but 176 for placebo, a P value of less than .0001.

So, this is a real endpoint, treating patients who are receiving endocrine therapy that, in this case, non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy that can increase bone loss, have a reduced fracture rate when they received denosumab. So that is the big take-home message, and a medium follow-up of 8 years. But the secondary endpoints included disease-free survival. They had about 20% disease-free survival events and 8% deaths, and what they saw was really interesting. So, the caveat is that 16% of patients were unblinded at the first analysis and half of them got denosumab, so it messed up their results a little bit, but the disease-free survival was significantly better in patients who received denosumab, and the hazard ratio of 0.83 and the hazard ratio does not cross 1.

So that’s very interesting, and even overall survival, they looked at 2 other endpoints, bone metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. They also trend towards an improvement with a hazard ratio of 0.8 for both of them. And they didn’t actually see toxicity. So, patients’ brittle bone fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) are all concerning, but they really just did not see any risks in this patient population. I think there was 1 patient that had what they thought was a brittle bone fracture. Obviously, they watched the mouth very carefully as well.

Really dramatic, and I think it’s kind of disappointing that we never had any registration approach in this, and also not well-understood why the D-CARE study did not show a benefit, but I think D-CARE was designed differently. This is a better design to focus on our patients and the specific issues, and I think it’s intriguing and should be considered as part of our treatment regimen for patients who are at risk for bone loss and have early-stage breast cancer on an aromatase inhibitor.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: I’ve been using DEXA scans and offering denosumab to my patients on AIs that have osteopenia or osteoporosis. Should we be considering it in women with normal bone mass?

Dr. Hope Rugo: I think not yet. Unfortunately, this trial was not immediately powered for cancer outcome, although the data are very encouraging. We don’t know what the relationship is to bone loss, and providing an environment that’s friendlier for cancer cells. So, do you have to have bone loss in order to have the risk that you’re reducing with these agents? Certainly, that’s what we’ve seen with zoledronate. So, I think that we don’t have sufficient data to use this simply to treat cancer, but I do think that we should be considering this as an agent to give patients who have bone loss, either when you’re starting an aromatase inhibitor or during the course of therapy. I think it’s well tolerated, and a subcutaneous injection is not difficult.

One of the questions that’s come up for people is do you get bone loss that increases your risk of fracture after you stop therapy. But clearly from these updated data, these patients were off therapy. They did not have an increase of fractures and the patients treated with denosumab fared much better, I mean the hazard ratio of 0.5.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Let’s move on to TROPiCS-02. That’s LBA1001. This is a randomized phase 3 study of sacituzumab govitecan versus treatment of physician’s choice in patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. How do you think this study will impact practice?

Dr. Hope Rugo: That’s a great question. I presented this data, and I think I presented it on a Saturday, and on Sunday we saw the plenary talk of DESTINY-Breast04. These patients enrolled in TROPiCs-02 had a median number of lines of prior chemo 3 with a range of up to 8 actually, compared to a median number of lines as 1 in the DESTINY-Breast04 population. We included all hormone receptor-positive HER2 negative-advanced breast cancer, not centrally confirmed. They included just the HER2 low subset that was centrally confirmed. Everybody in our study had received prior CDK4/6 inhibitors compared to about 70% in DB04. And then 95% of patients in this trial had visceral mets.

So, we did really treat a patient population who had very advanced high risk hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. As you know, we saw an improvement and progression-free survival with a hazard ratio of 0.66 meeting the endpoint. We needed a hazard ratio of 0.7, highly statistically significant P value .0003, but the median difference in PFS was only 1.5 months, and overall survival data is not yet mature. So that’s brought up the question about how this drug should be used because there was a big fall off in the first 2 months where patients had rapid disease progression with heavily pretreated chemotherapy-resistant disease. We did landmark analyses and there were big separations in PFS at 6, 9, and 12 months, and 12 months, it was 21% patients free of progression and death at 1 year versus 7% for the TPC arm. So, it was a tripling of patients who were free of progression at one year.

I think that’s clinically relevant. This drug is associated with more neutropenia. That’s the primary issue to manage, and probably half of the patients need growth factors at some point. When we looked at other endpoints response to ratio response, etc., we’re better with Sacituzumab. So where does this all fit into our treatment paradigm. I think there’s the HER2-low patients who will now receive T-DXd up in the, I hope, second line and not in lieu of endocrine therapy, when they’re ready for chemo.

But there are patients who don’t have HER2-low disease and then there are patients who are going to be in the later line setting. So, I do think it still has a place in the treatment department, receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. The results show that it was better than chemotherapy, physician choice based on our national and international guidelines, and that’s better for our patients to have that option.

Overall survival data obviously is looked for with great interest and that will help us put this into the right paradigm. And then I also hope that real world data will help us understand how sequential treatment with these different ADCs will benefit our patients.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: This is really exciting. Do you think that we’re maybe coming toward the end of conventional chemotherapy, especially for women with HER2-positive disease?

Dr. Hope Rugo: I wonder if we are. I think we were interested in T-DM1 for HER2-positive disease early on. We’ve seen some really nice pathologic complete response data as well as adjuvant data in the attempt trial in patients who had stage I disease. Now that we have these second-, third-generation ADCs, T-DXd, I think this could potentially completely replace our chemotherapy. We still have to deal with alopecia. And I will point out ADCs are still chemotherapy. They’re just a much more efficient and effective way of delivering treatment, and we need to be very careful to manage the toxicity.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Next, we’re going to talk about the main pain trial that’s LBA1004, which is a randomized phase 2 trial of fulvestrant or exemestane with or without ribociclib after progression on anti-estrogen therapy plus cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibition in patients with unresectable or hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, in other words CDK4/6 after CDK4/6. What are your takeaways here?

Dr. Hope Rugo: First, just amazing that an investigator-initiated trial could do this well and be placebo-controlled. So, kudos to the principal investigator (PI) [Dr.] Kevin Kalinsky. This trial is a small phase 2 trial. A reasonable number, 119 patients were randomly assigned and evaluable patients could have received up to 1 line of prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. If you had received prior exemestane, you received fulvestrant, if you received prior fulvestrant, you received exemestane, and actually if you looked at the number of patients who had received fulvestrant, it was 99 versus only 20 with exemestane. So important to keep in mind.

If you looked at the overall population where the primary endpoint was progression-free survival, the hazard ratio is 0.57, just median PFS of 2.8 months in patients receiving endocrine therapy and placebo and 5.3 months for patients receiving endocrine therapy and ribociclib. So was this ribociclib after ribociclib or ribociclib after something else. 86% of patients had received palbociclib as their prior CDK4/6 inhibitor, and only about 10% to 14% had received prior ribociclib. So, there’s a predominance of palbociclib followed by ribociclib.

The other thing that’s important to keep in mind is how sick this patient population was. Very few had received prior chemotherapy in the less than 10% range, visceral metastases in about 60%. So that’s helpful. Only 19% or so had received 2 or more endocrine therapies from metastases. So, most people did this as their second line treatment. The PFS, when you looked at fulvestrant or exemestane, looked like the benefit was relatively similar, but you know you got 20 patients in the exemestane arm. The hazard ratios, looking at the subgroup analyses, all looked pretty similar, and the overall response and clinical benefit rate were better with continuing the cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) inhibitor.

There was interesting sub-analysis looking at mutations and how that affected things. And they looked at patients who had ESR1 mutations or had wild-type ESR1. 42% had ESR1 mutations at study entry, very similar to what we’ve seen. In that group of patients, remember it’s only 33 where they had this analysis, they saw a lot of other mutations. So p53, PIK3CA, FGFR, CCND1—those patients did not benefit. Only 33 patients. No benefit at all, very short PFS, about 3 months. The patients who had ESR1 wild type seemed to benefit a lot, 45 patients going from about 3 months to a little over 8 months.

So, this is all hypothesis-generating data. I wouldn’t run out and use this as your standard of care now because it is small data. But when the patient doesn’t have other good options, I certainly would consider switching the CDK and going on, add that to the next line endocrine therapy. It’s important to switch the endocrine therapy. I think we really need to look at the ongoing phase 3 trials to give us better evidence basis and understand the impact of mutations and prior therapy on who might benefit from continued CDK inhibitors after progression on a CDK inhibitor.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: I think this is a really exciting trial. We all have a lot of patients on palbociclib and letrozole who’ve been on for 4, 5 years, and would like to continue with this kind of treatment because the side effects are really manageable. So, I look forward to seeing what’s coming in the future with the phase 3 trials.

So, let’s talk about Abstract 1015, which I thought is a great idea. It looks at the quality of life with ribociclib plus aromatase inhibitor versus abemaciclib plus AI as first-line treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, assessed via matching adjusted indirect comparison. Could you tell us what matching adjusted indirect comparison is and why you chose this for the study?

Dr. Hope Rugo: It’s an interesting question. How do you compare across trials? So, matching this kind of make analysis, we’ll call it a make analysis for the purposes of this discussion, allows you to match patients and weight based on their characteristics that might affect patient reported outcomes. And that actually is a way of trying to do a fair cross-trial comparison. So basically, take the study population, you match the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then you weigh the different criteria so that you can try and make a better association. It’s the best way we know of comparing across trials. You know, a lot of people ask why we didn’t have PALOMA-2 in here, and that’s because they used a different patient reported outcome tool. So, you have to use the same patient reported outcome tool in order to compare.

So that’s why we did this analysis, and it sort of came on the heels of a survey that Fatima Cardoso presented at San Antonio in 2021, where patients identified diarrhea as a symptom they really didn’t like more than everything else. And you can imagine, I think we all have that experience in practice, the unexpected nature of diarrhea and the fact that it does limit your activities and, therefore, quality of life are important. In this analysis, interestingly but not surprisingly, ribociclib favored abemaciclib in diarrhea, and there can be associated appetite loss, so ribociclib also favored abemaciclib for appetite loss.

And I thought the last one was interesting—fatigue—because I wouldn’t have assumed that fatigue would be different. And maybe it’s associated with diarrhea. They have these funny arm symptoms that were better. We don’t really know why that was, and it’s hard to assess again. We’re really not clear based on the differences between the drugs. So, there are limitations to the analysis, but I think that it helps us really in individual patients try and match patients’ underlying symptoms with the best treatment to offer them the best quality of life as they’re being treated in the metastatic setting.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: I thought this study was great because it really centered the experience of the patient and the wishes of the patient. You don’t see that designed into many clinical trials, the way this was. So, I thought that was a great feature of this study.

Dr. Hope Rugo: I will say that all of the 3 studies that looked at CDK inhibitors, all those 3 studies included patient-reported outcomes. That’s an important new approach that is really being focused on.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Do you consider the CDK4/6 inhibitors equivalent in efficacy, and could you substitute them to try to get the side effect profile that you want?

Dr. Hope Rugo: Well, I think that we saw in the early stage setting that there are differences. Now, across the different trials, there are big differences in patient populations and inclusions as we saw in the PALOMA-2 results that were presented at ASCO [Annual Meeting], whether the patients had prior chemotherapy like in PALOMA-3, whether they had a short disease-free interval, the higher risk patients in PALOMA-2. The PALOMA trials were more broadly inclusive than the other 2 studies, the MONALEESA and MONARCH series of trials. So, we do have to be a little bit careful about comparing apples to oranges, but we have the early-stage results of MONARCH E showing a clinically important difference in outcome whereas the PALLAS and Penelope-B trials didn’t. So that sort of puts us into a little bit of a question period. Are these all patient populations or are there differences between the agents? The PFS and the metastatic setting, all the hazard ratios line up.

So, in truth, although I know the activity against cyclin-independent kinases are different between agents, we don’t still really understand the clinical differences in efficacy, but I think we all are practicing using evidence-based medicine. I wouldn’t, for example, substitute a different CDK4/6 inhibitor for abemaciclib in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. We have to just learn how to manage the diarrhea and use prophylaxis and dose reduce early to manage this and make it tolerable for our patients.

And in the metastatic setting, I think we need to follow evidence-based guidelines and use the best data available to decide on the right treatment approach and sequencing for our patients.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: Thank you, Hope, for coming on the podcast today. This was a really interesting review of one of the most exciting ASCO [Annual Meetings] I’ve been to. And thanks for sharing your valuable insights with us and helping us make sense of all this really new exciting data. We really appreciate it.

Dr. Hope Rugo: Thank you. And thank you so much for inviting me.

Dr. Allison Zibelli: And thank you to our listeners for joining us today. You will find the links to all the abstracts discussed today in the transcript of this episode.

Finally, if you value the insights that you hear on the ASCO Daily News Podcast, please take a moment to rate, review, and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. That really helps other listeners find us. Thank you.



Dr. Allison Zibelli: None disclosed.

Dr. Hope Rugo:

Honoraria: Puma Biotechnology, Mylan, Samsung Bioepis, Chugai Pharma, Blueprint Medicines

Consulting or Advisory Role: Napo Pharmaceuticals

Research Funding (Inst.): OBI Pharma, Pfizer, Novartis, Lilly, Genentech, Merck, Odonate Therapeutics, Daiichi Sankyo, Sermonix Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Gilead Sciences, Ayala Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma, Seattle Genetics, Macrogenics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Polyphor

Disclaimer: The purpose of this podcast is to educate and to inform. This is not a substitute for professional medical care and is not intended for use in the diagnosis or treatment of individual conditions.

Guests on this podcast express their own opinions, experience, and conclusions. Guest statements on the podcast do not express the opinions of ASCO. The mention of any product, service, organization, activity, or therapy should not be construed as an ASCO endorsement.